Emoxypine, also known as 2-ethyl-6-methyl 3-hydroxypiridine by its chemical name, was primarily synthesized by K.M Dumayev and L.D Smirnov. Afterwards the Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and National Scientific Center of Bioactive Substances Safety studied and then developed the drug. Commercially known as Mexificin or Mexidol, when utilized as succinate salt, it is a drug that was manufactured by Pharmasoft Pharmaceuticals, a Russian company. Emoxypine possess anti-oxidation properties and it has a chemical structure that basically resembles that of a sort of vitamin B6 known as pyridoxine. However, it is not medically used in both Europe and the United states since it has not been given the nod.
How does it work?
According to studies, emoxypine possesses multifarious mechanisms of action. Interestingly, almost all of these modes of action have the same effect-antioxidation. This drug has also been shown to protect the neural membrane as well as to have antihypoxic effects. It achieves its effects by inhibiting the peroxidation of lipids, increasing the activity of an enzyme known as superoxide dismutase, and also by increasing the lipid-protein membrane’s fluidity an action that results to its increased ratio.
Furthermore, the drug increases the level of dopamine in the brain. It does this by stimulating the activities of some membrane enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase, and receptor complexes such as benzodiazepine, acetylcholine and GABA a phenomenon that increases their ligand-binding ability. In addition, enhanced transmission at the synapses, neurotransmitters’ transport, and maintaining the integrity of the membranes function and structure are achieved as a result. Moreover, the drug causes increased synthesis of energy by stimulating the production of ATP, as well as creatine phosphates.
Benefits of emoxypine
Emoxypine has been shown to possess a litany of functions in the central nervous system.Studies have indicated that the drug protects the neurons that are exposed to low blood glucose as well as oxygen. It achieves the two phenomena by enhancing the volume of oxygen that goes to the brain by raising the flow of blood to the brain. It also increases the production of ATP that is used to support all the cellular processes in the brain. Furthermore, the drug has anti-stress effects, and it is given to patients in order to normalize their behaviors in their post-stress period.
When the study was done in Russia entailing a group of 44 elderly patients, the drug was shown to increase their concentration span. It also displayed a capacity to increase work. Furthermore, this drug has separately been shown to decrease the toxic effects of alcohols.
Dosage and side effects
Emoxypine, which is marketed under its brand name Mexidol, is administered through the oral administration route. Its recommended therapeutic dose ranges from 125mg to 250 mg that should be given thrice per day. The suggested maximum daily dose is 800 mg equivalent of six tablets. It also has a formulation that is injectable which consists of 50mg/ml in 2ml and 5ml ampules in intravenous and intramuscular forms.
There are also claims that for an in-patient treatment of craniocerebral trauma, doses of between 750- 1000mg gave anxiolytic effects as well as sedative effects. The duration of treatment for these patients is between 2-6 weeks. The treatment should be stopped gradually, scaling down the dose for 2-3 days.
This drug has been shown to possess little to know side effects. The only side effects are dyspepsia and in the digestive system and allergic reactions as well. It may also cause drowsiness if taken in overdose.